Michael A 1 Michael A 2 Micheal ACastles

Why Castles were necessary

A castle is a structure that is protected against attack with several parts to it including: thick walls, battlements, towers, a moat etc.  During medieval times they were essential to protecting a King or Queen and providing a comfortable environment for them to live it. It was kind of like a tiny village in the middle of the building with a castle containing not only royalty but their servants, physicians, knights, friends and advisors. Hence, a castle not only protected the royalty but everyone else within its walls, which is why it was often heavily protected and guarded.


Life inside the castle

Inside the castle would be very organised they would have a social structure which would have peasants, knights etc. they would all be serving the lord of the castle the lord. The lord would have servants and soldiers that would work for him the lord would have a fireplace to keep warm during the cold days while the lower class would have lamps to get warmth. The lord would sit on a chair that he would only sit on while his rich nobles would have benches to sit on in the hall. The lord would have a room that would have curtains for privacy. The toilets they used in the time were called garderobe which would send waste to the moat. The lord would have butlers and cooks that would cook food like peacock swan magpie etc. The knights would have tournaments to such as melee battles and jousting.


How castles were attacked and defended

One way of attacking the castle is to surround the castle and stoped the water supply and food and waited till they starved to death the. Second way was to mine underground go underneath the castle and burn the bottom of the castle to make the castle collapse and also using catapults and bows etc. There was several ways of defending the castle, putting the castle on top of a steep hill to make it more difficult for the enemy to charge at them or even mine. Another way of defend the castle was to make it more circular which would give a better sight around the area for arches and make it easier to defend since there are no corners.


 Castle design

Castles were used in the medieval times to protect from enemies in war castles would be made out of wood and they would create a ditch in the floor then later in time they would put a serious of walls around a draw   this was the standard castle in the eleventh century. Till they created more complex castles that would have thicker walls or even stone walls for better protection they added battle parapets which would protect the soldiers from the inside of the castle from enemy fire, when an attack by the Normans they added dungeons which would be high in the sky around the castle, they also added a moat around the whole castle filled up with water which was better than a ditch they also added a bridge was part of the castle and would be lowered or raised over the moat this was called a drawbridge it would also be made out of iron to protect form enemy fire. The inside of a castle would have a water well food etc. to survive a long attack against the enemy. The dungeon was in ta box shape till it was created circular since it was easier to defend. The castle was complex yet again in the thirteenth century by adding other building to make it stronger and to have better defence they would also place castle in high areas so the land could be seen easier

The end of castles

Castles ended in the fifteenth century because of the beginning of gun powder which was used for cannons and mortars in that time. the mortars and cannons would shoot out heavy balls that would demolish the walls of the castle so enemy’s would be able to siege the castle by making a hole in the castle. Since then castles weren’t needed for anything because there would be no point of having them for protection.





The end of castles, history learning, published in 2014


Amelia Roopnarine, published in May 18th 1997,castle in the middle ages

BBC, published in 2014, everyday life in the middle ages

Castle defence and attack, medieval-castle

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The First castle was built in 1066 by William the Conqueror.


Why were castles necessary in medieval time?

Castles were necessary in medieval times because they needed and had to have protection from the foreign invaders, which was mainly during the times of wars. At first the castles were built in a simple construction which was out of wood, which didn’t last a very long time. But as time passed things start to advance, therefore the weaponry and attacks became stronger so they had to make the building sophisticated. Later castles were built from stone, which lasted a longer period of time than the wooden ones which wasn’t very strong. Why Were castles built, copyright 2012

How has the castle changed over time?

The first castles that were built were called the Motte and Bailey castle which was on a hill. It was made simply out of wood with not too much work, and they were easy and quick to build. It also gave the soldiers a good view because they were high up but since it was made out of wood, it can rot and burn down quite easily so they started to change it to stone but didn’t work. Next it was the first stone tower was called a square keep; these were taller than the Motte and Bailey so that soldiers could see further places. This castle was stronger and lasted longer unlike wood which could rot and burn, although it did take a longer time to build. But if the enemy surrounded there would be no place to go. Then it was the shell keep castle; which was round so that all directions could be seen but it did have a weak gate way. After that the king had become wealthier so they built a even stronger one called Concentric, which took more time and was more expensive but was able to hold more food and people. After all his it was more of a place of comfort since there was less violence.!/2012/09/how-did-castles-change-over-time.html  Unknown Author the web is Korean

How castles were attacked and defended.

There were six main methods of attack one is fire. It was the most effective when the Motte and Bailey Castles were still in use since they were made out of wood. They would also fire, fire arrows inside the castle to force them out and then attack. Second was the battering ram. It was used for weakening or even destroying walls or doors caused by its powerful force as well as with a lot of men pushing it. Third were ladders, used to climb over walls but wasn’t the best idea since it would leave the men climbing at a disadvantage since the defenders could just push them away from the wall or pour something unpleasant on them, but then there was the belfry which could move around on wheels and could not be pushed down. Fourth was the catapult, they were large objects that flung things into the castle such as fire ball, rocks or dead things. Fifth was mining, it was a way to get inside a castle without being noticed or to put explosives under the castle to destroy it but if the people knew that there was people mining they would try to meet up with them and have a sword fight. The sixth was Siege which the attackers would surround the castle not letting anyone go out or in so that no supplies will go through and the people inside will eventually starve to death. The main defense was only to send all the women, elders, children, the weak and sick, so that the strong people stayed back to attack and the food stock could last longer. The castle its self was mainly the defense, it is was needed to give the defenders as much as advantages it could get the bigger and higher that castle were the more advantages it gave. For example if someone decided to mine the people on the castle could quickly spot the people digging and pour water in it. unknown author copyright 2000 unknown Author Web by Joax 2005 Copyrighted

How castle building come to an end

Castle building came to an end because gunpowder had come to existence. Gunpowder was first invented in China around the 9th century but had made its presents in Europe in about the late 13th century by trade routes. About in the 14th century, cannons had been invented, this resulted in castles being easily destroyed and the occupiers defeated. If cannon were besieged properly a castle could be taken down easily. Because of this castles ceased to build because they thought that there was no point in building something that was going to be destroyed so easily as well as it being so easily destroyed and expensive to repair and build.

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Castles in Medieval Europe

  1. Pavly I 3 Pavly I 4 Pavly I Why were castles necessary and what were they used for?

Castles were a very important part of the medieval European times. Most castles were built in the 12th century to the 15th century. Castles were very important back then because to some people it was like their home. When you aren’t surrounded by any wall there is a high possibility to be shot by a bow and arrow. Castles could be said as homes to some people because that’s where they felt safe and protected. Castles were used as a wall of defense and protection. They were also very important to the king and his nobles so that they could have power to control all of the land and also to protect themselves from foreign invaders. This is why most of the castles are built on hills so they can see the whole city for land and attacks. Castles were mainly built in war times because they were used mainly for war and to block out enemies. When they were expecting an attack from somewhere all the gates were closed up and the drawbridge was raised up and closed.

  1. What were castles made of?

The buildings of castles were built out of large stones, bricks and wood because those were probably the only materials that were available to them back then. Most castles were built out of strong stones and bricks. Early castles were built out of wood and on a hill. Then they found out that wood burns easily so they stopped making it out of wood and instead used stone to make it strong and efficient. Also stone wouldn’t burn so that changed castles over time. Later on castles were built out of Also they were very tall to block all enemies from coming into it and also so it could be hard for the enemies to shoot them. Castles have the walls around it dug in so there is a place for protection and to shoot from above. High walls were used to stop armies from coming in and also to provide many lookout positions for safety of the castle and all its people. Also castles would usually have a river or some sort of danger area around the whole castle to protect themselves and to stop the people from coming into it.

  1. Why did castles come to an end?

One of the reasons castles came to an end was because when the Chinese people invented gunpowder which wrecked many castles and war was easy. They would fire a bomb at the castle then it would be blown up. Castles would then need to be upgraded so they could be able to stop guns and even cannon bombs and explosions. People were not going to pay for their castles not to be wrecked and fixed by bombs. Gunpowder and canons and explosions made the castles ineffective and later were useless and not many used them anymore.

  1. Bibliography?
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The Hundred Year War

Jia Yi Pan (2) Jia Yi PanOrigin of the Hundred Years War

Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, the term ‘The Hundred Years War’ was adopted by historians to describe the sequence of conflicts that erupted between England and France from 1337 – 1453 AD. The origins of this prolonged conflict were generally instigated by England’s desire to claim independent possession from France and Edward III’s succession to the French throne: For over two hundred years since the Norman Conquest, English kings were subjected to the French monarch as vassals and had dominated the duchy of Guyenne and the region of Ponthieu in the early fourteenth century, although it remained as a fief of the French kings; Also when Edward II died, Edward III of England claimed the throne of France as the nephew of Charles IV, the last king of the Direct Capetian Dynasty of France. However, the succession of Edward III was rejected by the French and later ensued the Hundred Years War over the claim of throne. Other factors that motivated the conflict were the interference of France royals between the war of England and Scotland and the English were provoked by French’s domination over Flanders and its wool trade with England. In November 1337, Edward III marched his army into France and began the Hundred Years War.

Main Battles

Although this war between England and France is known as the ‘Hundred Years War’, it was interrupted by many truces. Major battles that destined the fate of England and France were:

Battle of Crécy:

After four years of truce, in 1346 August 26, Edward III led an invasion at the coast of Normandy, north of France. English’s victory in this battle had set the foundation for further invasions for English in France, and had marked the rise of England as a world power as England had not obtained much power prior to this time. Surmounted by the size of the French army, the English still won by the use of long arrows, which has the advantage of injuring the enemy over long distance. The use of long arrow archers also flagged the decline of mounted knight, which was prevalently employed before this battle.

After defeating the French in Crecy, Edward III led another invasion further north into Calais, who surrendered after eleven months of siege by the English army.  In 1350, the demise of King Philippe VI of France and the horror of Black Death desisted the war.

Battle of Poitiers:

In 1356 September, the battle raged again. Under the command of the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III, the English army advanced towards the central regions of France from Bordeaux, however, his army retreated to Bordeaux after pursued by John II. On September 18, the French attacked the English army on the outskirt of Poitiers. With experienced veterans from the battle of Crecy, the English defeated the French army, capturing John II of France and more than two thousand members from French aristocracy.

In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed between Edward III and John II, which concluded that the French would pay three million gold crowns in exchange for the release of their king, and the territories of Poitou, Aunis, Saintonge, Angoumois, Guienne, Gascony and Calais will be ceded by the French with Edward III’s renounce to the French throne.                 From 1360 – 1389, France reclaimed most of its territory from England under the command of Charles V, the son of John II. In 1389, a truce was signed by both sides to extend the treaty for another twenty eight years.


Battle of Agincourt:

In the early 15th century, Henry V of reasserted the claim for the French throne, leading his army to win against the French, who were three times greater than the size of the English army at Agincourt, 1415 October 25. Subsequently, the Treaty of Troyes was signed between Henry V and Charles VI of France in 1420. The agreement specified that Henry V would marry Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI, and would inherit the throne of France.

Victory of Joan of Arc at Orleans

The siege of Orleans was a decisive moment of the Hundred Years War, which marked the French’s first major victory in the battles. Since 1428 October, led by the Duke of Bedford, England besieged Orleans for several months. During that time, a young French peasant, Joann of Arc, informed Charles VII that she had received visions from God, who commanded her to aid him to expel England from France. In 1429 May 8, Joann led an army into Orleans and defeated the English army. By 1430, only the coast of Calais was possessed by England.

Battle of Castillon

The unsuccessful attack of the English army at the town of Castillon drew the end of the Hundred Years War in 1453 July 17.


The legacies of the war were not only short term effects; they also shaped the development of England and France. After the Battle of Castillon, the English were expulsed from the land of France and returned to the British Isle. Though a watershed had formed between the two nations, this has compelled the British to set a new political basis and facilitated the independence of the British colony. Also shortly after peace was established, the War of the Roses, a thirty years battle between the houses of Lancaster and York flamed up due to some causes in the Hundred Years War.

With Henry VI‘s insanity, the English relinquished their claim to the French Crown and the house of Valois reasserted the claim. Though much of the lands of France were recovered during the Hundred Years War, the Valois kings regained the remaining regions and unified them into a realm.

The military revolution during the war declined the custom of knights, which had diminished the social standing of nobility in the feudal system as the military service increased the employment to rankings outside of aristocracy and nobility.


Duchy – land ruled by a duke or duchess

Fief – the land that the lord granted to his vassals in the feudal system

Siege – the operation of surrounding and attacking a city or town to isolate their supplies of resources


Trueman.C, History Learning Site, 2015, The Hundred Years War, (accessed 2015 April 26)

Atchley.S, French-at-a-Touch, 2014, The Hundred Years’ War, 1337 to 1453, (accessed 2015 May 2)

Keen.M, British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, 2011, The Hundred Years War, (accessed 2015 May 5)

Wheeler.L, Dr Wheeler’s Website, 2014, The Hundred Years’ War, (accessed 2015 May 5)

Green.D, New Left Project, 2014, The Hundred Years War And The Making Of Modern Europe, (accessed 2015 May 9)

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Weapons and Armour

SHao Ma 2 Hao Mawords

There are many types of swords the type of sword that I am going to talk about on this page is the Long Sword. The longsword, with its longer grip and blade, appears to have become popular during the 14th century and remained in common use, as shown through period art and tale, from 1250 to 1550. The longsword was a powerful and versatile weapon. For close personal infantry combat, however, the longsword was prized for its versatility and killing capability. These swords were often longer than 1 meter which allows people to reach out far to attack the enemy. The longsword was a famous and vastly used weapon in medieval European history.




The Medieval times were an extremely violent era in history featuring battles in both Europe and the Holy Land when the crusades, and the crusaders who fought them, were numerous. Feudal Lords and Knights and their men at arms used such weapons as the Medieval Battle Axe in different types of warfare. The quest for power led to invasions of lands and territories which had to be fought for. Siege warfare, waged to win a castle or a walled town or city, was a frequent occurrence during the medieval period. Warfare during the medieval era called for a variety of weapon expertise. Knights and men-at-arms (who consisted of foot soldiers or archers) used different types of weapons. The “Medieval Battle Axe” was predominantly used by foot soldiers. The weapons used were dictated according to status and position. The weapons, armour and horse of the Knight were extremely expensive – the fighting power of just one knight was worth 10 ordinary soldiers.


The crossbow was introduced early in the 14th century. The crossbow consisted of a bow mounted on a stock that could be cranked or pulled into place using more leverage than could be used on a conventional longbow. The result was a very high-powered, lower trajectory weapon of great destructive potential. It fired a bolt, a shorter version of an arrow. However, the firing time on a crossbow was slow compared to the longbow, and for that reason and owing to the vastly higher expense during the period, the longbow remained the favoured missile weapon of the 14th and 15th century in England and in France. From time to time the crossbow was banned by various laws, but it remained a weapon of great popularity during the late 14th century in many countries, the Swiss states, in Germany and in Italy.


A Knight’s shield could be round, square, or the kite shaped and was used to defend the knight from attack. They could be made of metal but during the 14th and 15th centuries they were usually made of wood. A knight’s shield protected him from the blows of battle as he held in one hand while we carried his sword or lance in his right. The most common type of shield was the Heater, which has the familiar kite shape to it. During tournaments small Heaters would be used, but during wartime, larger shields would be brought out to defend against missiles and arrows. The Buckler was another popular shield. It was small and round, and was the type most often used in duels.

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The Medieval Church

Sarah W 1 Sarah W 2 Sarah WThe Importance of the church in the middle ages:
Q1- in the middle ages, religion was very important for the Europeans. Catholicism was probably the major religion in Europe in the middle ages. They had other famous religions were Judaism and Islam, but mostly people followed the Catholicism. Most of the western parts of Europe.

Q2- The church was controlled by the peasants that worked on the land of the church. They also worked outside of the church to make it look pretty.

Q3- the medieval church was made out of stone. They were built using a Roman style and eventually in time Gothic became the new church style trend. Many of the medieval churches still exist and are standing today.

Q4- what are some positive influences the church had within the community?
The medieval church and the pope has always had an influence on the government like how it has paved the way for economic growth that has completely changed European society.

Q5- what are some negative influences the church had within the community?
In the medieval church had quite afew things wrong with it from a Christian perspective. Like it was controlling, it was corrupt because rather than people reading the bible for themselves they could only read in church of what the pope wanted them to read, also they had indolence witch is where they would have to ‘pay’ for their sins so they would pay money to the church and they could go kill whoever they wanted and it would be ok because they paid for their sins…. I could go on forever about this.

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Medieval Castles

Rylan K 2 Rylan K 3 (2) Rylan K 3Use of Castles!

Castles was a major part of Medieval Times and they were used for many different reasons. Firstly Medieval Castles were mainly used to protect Nobles from war. It was a strong structure that protected the people from any invasion or trouble that was happening from the outside. It was also used for people to live but not any people only rich and wealthy people.

Change of Castles over time!

Castles were introduced in the 11th Century to 17th Century. The first castles were made out of timber and they sat on a high mound called a motte which was surrounded by a ditch. Later as civilisation increased and new ideas formed, the castles were built out of stone because they were much stronger than wood and it was not likely to be caught on fire. It was a better defensive strategy than wood.

How Castles were attacked and defended?

To attack a castle was very hard at those times because it was so highly developed. One of the best ways to attack a castle was to use fire; it was used so that the castle would burn. But fire was ineffective because castles changed over time and was made out of stone. Another way was to use a battering ram; it was used to weaken the doors of the castle or even destroy the doors of the castle by the force of many men behind it. The first line of defence for a castle was its curtain walls; they just made the enemy waste time in attacking the castle and this gave more time for the people of the castle to get ready to defend. Another smart way to defend the castle was to build it in a ditch and around it was water, this slowed the attacker down. The builders of the castle then realised that round towers were more effective for defence than a straight box shape for the castle.


Life in a Castle

Life in a castle was very organised and tidy, as well as cold because there was not much in there. Castles at that time were the heart of the society. Each castle would have a local lord and his vassals as well as the peasants below the vassals, the main two were the Lord and the Lady but they were mostly out. There would have been a lot of people in the castle because there were a lot of individual tasks that had to be completed, like cooks, gardeners, grooms and more. The castle would always be busy because there was lots of people cooking delicious food for big ceremonies that were happening in the big hall.  Castles also had a lot of knights there because they were the soldiers of the castle and they had to fight for their Lord. The Knights would train at the castle to be a stronger and better warrior in battle. Some Castles would have their own dungeon where they held prisoners.

Why castles came to an end?

Castles were a great force of defence against any enemy, but unfortunately castles became ineffective and a big waste of time.  It was because normal weapons would just make some damage, but with gunpowder weapons castles were powerless. Gunpowder was then used all over the world and its strength was to destroy castles. Therefore castles were not built because they were too expensive and were destroyed easily.



Author: Unknown, History on the Net, Unknown,” Medieval Life- Attacking and Defending a Castle”

Author: Trueman, History Learning Site, CT, “Defending A Castle”

Author: Edd, Exploring Castles, Edd,”Life in a medieval castle: The smells, sounds and structure of medieval castle life”

Author: Mandy Barrow, Castles, MD, “Questions about castles” 2013

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